nlcpy.ndarray

class nlcpy.ndarray(shape, dtype=float, strides=None, order='C')

N-dimensional array class for VE.

An array object represents a multidimensional, homogeneous array of fixed-size items. An associated data-type object describes the format of each element in the array (its byte-order, how many bytes it occupies in memory, whether it is an integer, a floating point number, or something else, etc.) Arrays should be constructed using (refer to the See Also section below). The parameters given here refer to a low-level method (ndarray(...)) for instantiating an array.

Parameters
shapetuple of ints

Shape of created array.

dtypedtype, optional

Any object that can be interpreted as a numpy or nlcpy data type.

stridestuple of ints

Strides of data in memory.

order{'C','F'}, optional

Row-major (C-style) or column-major (Fortran-style) order.

参考

array

Constructs an array.

zeros

Creates an array, each element of which is zero.

empty

Creates an array, but leave its allocated memory unchanged.

Examples

This example illustrate the low-level ndarray constructor. Refer to the See Also section above for easier ways of constructing an ndarray.

>>> import nlcpy as vp
>>> vp.ndarray(shape=(2,2), dtype=float, order='F') 
array([[0., 0.],     # may vary
       [0., 0.]])

Methods

__getitem__(key, /)

Return self[key].

__setitem__(key, value, /)

Set self[key] to value.

__len__(/)

Return len(self).

__iter__(/)

Implement iter(self).

all(self, axis=None, out=None, keepdims=False)

Returns True if all elements evaluate to True.

Refer to nlcpy.all() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.all

Equivalent function.

any(self, axis=None, out=None, keepdims=False)

Returns True if any elements evaluate to True.

Refer to nlcpy.any() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.any

Equivalent function.

argmax(self, axis=None, out=None) ndarray

Returns indices of the maximum values along the given axis.

Refer to nlcpy.argmax() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.argmax

Equivalent function.

argmin(self, axis=None, out=None) ndarray

Returns indices of the minimum values along the given axis.

Refer to nlcpy.argmin() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.argmin

Equivalent function.

argsort(self, axis=- 1, kind=None, order=None) ndarray

Returns the indices that would sort this array.

Refer to nlcpy.argsort() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.argsort

Equivalent function.

astype(self, dtype, order='K', casting=None, subok=None, copy=True) ndarray

Returns a copy of the array, casts to a specified type.

Parameters
dtypestr or dtype

Typecode or data-type to which the array is cast.

order{'C','F','A','K'}, optional

Controls the memory layout order of the result. 'C' means C order, 'F' means Fortran order, 'A' means 'F' order if all the arrays are Fortran contiguous, 'C' order otherwise, and 'K' means as close to the order the array elements appear in memory as possible. Default is 'K'.

castingstr, optional

This argument is not supported. The default is None.

subokbool, optional

This argument is not supported. The default is None.

copybool, optional

By default, astype always returns a newly allocated array. If this is set to false, and the dtype, order requirements are satisfied, the input array is returned instead of a copy.

Returns
arr_tndarray

Unless copy is False and the other conditions for returning the input array are satisfied (see description for copy input parameter), arr_t is a new array of the same shape as the input array, with dtype, order given by dtype, order.

Examples

>>> import nlcpy as vp
>>> x = vp.array([1, 2, 2.5])
>>> x
array([1. , 2. , 2.5])
>>> x.astype(int)
array([1, 2, 2])
clip(self, a_min, a_max, out=None, **kwargs)
conj(self, out=None, where=True, casting='same_kind', order='K', dtype=None, subok=False)

Function that operates element by element on whole arrays.

参考

nlcpy.conj

Equivalent function.

conjugate(self, out=None, where=True, casting='same_kind', order='K', dtype=None, subok=False)

Function that operates element by element on whole arrays.

参考

nlcpy.conjugate

Equivalent function.

copy(self, order='C') ndarray

Returns a copy of the array.

Parameters
order{'C','F','A','K'}, optional

Controls the memory layout of the copy. 'C' means C-order, 'F' means F-order, 'A' means 'F' if a is Fortran contiguous, 'C' otherwise. 'K' means match the layout of a as closely as possible. (Note that this function and nlcpy.copy are very similar, but have different default values for their order= arguments.)

参考

nlcpy.copy

Equivalent function.

cumsum(self, axis=None, dtype=None, out=None)

Returns the cumulative sum of the elements along a given axis.

参考

nlcpy.cumsum

Equivalent function.

diagonal(self, offset=0, axis1=0, axis2=1) ndarray

Returns specified diagonals.

Refer to nlcpy.diagonal for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.diagonal

Equivalent function.

dot(self, b, out=None)

Computes a dot product of two arrays.

参考

nlcpy.dot

Equivalent function.

fill(self, value)

Fills the array with a scalar value.

Parameters
valuescalar

All elements of the ndarray will be assigned this value.

Examples

>>> import nlcpy as vp
>>> a = vp.array([1, 2])
>>> a.fill(0)
>>> a
array([0, 0])
>>> a = vp.empty(2)
>>> a.fill(1)
>>> a
array([1., 1.])
flatten(self, order='C')

Returns a copy of the array collapsed into one dimension.

Parameters
order{'C','F','A','K'}, optional

'C' means to flatten in row-major (C-style) order. 'F' means to flatten in column-major (Fortran-style) order. 'A' means to flatten in column-major order if a is Fortran contiguous in memory, row-major order otherwise. 'K' means to flatten a in the order the elements occur in memory. The default is 'C'.

Returns
outndarray

A copy of the input array, flattened to one dimension.

参考

nlcpy.ravel

Returns a flattened array.

制限事項

  • If order = 'F' : NotImplementedError occurs.

  • If order = 'A' or 'K' : NotImplementedError occurs when a is using
    Fortran-style order

Examples

>>> import nlcpy as vp
>>> a = vp.array([[1,2], [3,4]])
>>> a.flatten()
array([1, 2, 3, 4])
get(self, order='C', out=None)

Returns a NumPy array on VH that copied from VE.

Parameters
order{'C','F','A'}, optional

Controls the memory layout order of the result. The default is 'C'. The order will be ignored if out is specified.

max(self, axis=None, out=None, keepdims=False, initial=nlcpy._NoValue, where=True) ndarray

Returns the maximum along a given axis.

Refer to nlcpy.amax() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.amax

Equivalent function.

mean(self, axis=None, dtype=None, out=None, keepdims=nlcpy._NoValue)

Computes the arithmetic mean along the specified axis.

Returns the average of the array elements. The average is taken over the flattened array by default, otherwise over the specified axis. float64 intermediate and return values are used for integer inputs.

Refer to nlcpy.mean() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.mean

Equivalent function.

min(self, axis=None, out=None, keepdims=False, initial=nlcpy._NoValue, where=True) ndarray

Returns the minimum along a given axis.

Refer to nlcpy.amin() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.amin

Equivalent function.

nonzero(self)

Returns the indices of the elements that are non-zero.

Refer to nlcpy.nonzero() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.nonzero

Equivalent function.

prod(self, axis=None, dtype=None, out=None, keepdims=False, initial=nlcpy._NoValue, where=True)

Returns the product of the array elements over the given axis.

参考

nlcpy.prod

Equivalent function.

ptp(self, axis=None, out=None, keepdims=nlcpy._NoValue)

Range of values (maximum - minimum) along an axis.

Refer to nlcpy.ptp() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.ptp

Equivalent function.

ravel(self, order='C')

Returns a flattened array.

Refer to nlcpy.ravel() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.ravel

Equivalent function.

repeat(self, repeats, axis=None)

Repeats elements of an array.

Refer to nlcpy.repeat() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.repeat

Equivalent function.

reshape(self, *shape, order='C')

Returns an array containing the same data with a new shape.

Refer to nlcpy.reshape() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.reshape

Equivalent function.

注釈

Unlike the free function nlcpy.reshape(), this method on ndarray.reshape() allows the elements of the shape parameter to be passed in as separate arguments. For example, a.reshape(10, 11) is equivalent to a.reshape((10, 11)).

resize(self, *new_shape, refcheck=True)

Changes shape and size of array in-place.

Parameters
new_shapetuple of ints, or n ints

Shape of resized array.

refcheckbool, optional

If False, reference count will not be checked. Default is True.

Returns
None

参考

nlcpy.resize

Returns a new array with the specified shape.

注釈

This reallocates space for the data area if necessary.

Only contiguous arrays (data elements consecutive in memory) can be resized.

The purpose of the reference count check is to make sure you do not use this array as a buffer for another Python object and then reallocate the memory. However, reference counts can increase in other ways so if you are sure that you have not shared the memory for this array with another Python object, then you may safely set refcheck to False.

Examples

Shrinking an array: array is flattened (in the order that the data are stored in memory), resized, and reshaped:

>>> import nlcpy as vp
>>> a = vp.array([[0, 1], [2, 3]], order='C')
>>> a.resize((2, 1))
>>> a
array([[0],
       [1]])
>>> a = vp.array([[0, 1], [2, 3]], order='F')
>>> a.resize((2, 1))
>>> a
array([[0],
       [2]])

Enlarging an array: as above, but missing entries are filled with zeros:

>>> b = vp.array([[0, 1], [2, 3]])
>>> b.resize(2, 3) # new_shape parameter doesn't have to be a tuple
>>> b
array([[0, 1, 2],
       [3, 0, 0]])

Referencing an array prevents resizing...

>>> c = a
>>> a.resize((1, 1))   
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: cannot resize an array that references or is referenced ...

Unless refcheck is False:

>>> a.resize((1, 2), refcheck=False)
>>> a
array([[0, 2]])
>>> c
array([[0, 2]])
set(self, a_cpu)

Copies an array on the host memory to nlcpy.ndarray.

Parameters
a_cpunumpy.ndarray

The source array on the host memory.

sort(self, axis=- 1, kind=None, order=None)

Sorts an array in-place.

Refer to nlcpy.sort() for full documentation.

Parameters
axisint, optional

Axis along which to sort. Default is -1, which means sort along the last axis.

kind{'stable'}, optional

Sorting algorithm.

orderstr or list of str, optional

Not implemented.

参考

nlcpy.sort

Returns a sorted copy of an array.

nlcpy.argsort

Returns the indices that would sort an array.

制限事項

  • kind is not None and not 'stable' : NotImplementedError occurs.

  • order is not None : NotImplementedError occurs.

Examples

>>> import nlcpy as vp
>>> a = vp.array([[1,4], [3,1]])
>>> a.sort(axis=1)
>>> a
array([[1, 4],
       [1, 3]])
>>> a.sort(axis=0)
>>> a
array([[1, 3],
       [1, 4]])
squeeze(self, axis=None)

Removes single-dimensional entries from the shape of an array.

Refer to nlcpy.squeeze() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.squeeze

Equivalent function.

std(self, axis=None, dtype=None, out=None, ddof=0, keepdims=nlcpy._NoValue)

Computes the standard deviation along the specified axis.

Returns the standard deviation, a measure of the spread of a distribution, of the array elements. The standard deviation is computed for the flattened array by default, otherwise over the specified axis.

Refer to nlcpy.std() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.std

Equivalent function.

sum(self, axis=None, dtype=None, out=None, keepdims=False, initial=0, where=True)

Returns the sum of the array elements over the given axis.

参考

nlcpy.sum

Equivalent function.

swapaxes(self, axis1, axis2)

Returns a view of the array with axis1 and axis2 interchanged.

Refer to nlcpy.swapaxes() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.swapaxes

Equivalent function.

take(self, indices, axis=None, out=None, mode='wrap') ndarray

Takes elements from an array along an axis.

Refer to nlcpy.take() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.take

Equivalent function.

tobytes(self, order='C')

Constructs Python bytes containing the raw data bytes in the array.

Constructs Python bytes showing a copy of the raw contents of data memory. The bytes object can be produced in either 'C' or 'Fortran', or 'Any' order (the default is 'C'-order). 'Any' order means C-order unless the F_CONTIGUOUS flag in the array is set, in which case it means 'Fortran' order.

Parameters
orderorder{'C', 'F', None}, optional

Order of the data for multidimensional arrays: C, Fortran, or the same as for the original array.

Returns
sbytes

Python bytes exhibiting a copy of a's raw data.

Examples

>>> import nlcpy as vp
>>> x = vp.array([[0, 1], [2, 3]], dtype='<u4')
>>> x.tobytes()
b'\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x00\x00\x03\x00\x00\x00'
>>> x.tobytes('C') == x.tobytes()
True
>>> x.tobytes('F')
b'\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x03\x00\x00\x00'
tolist(self)

Returns the array as an a.ndim-levels deep nested list of Python scalars.

Returns a copy of the array data as a (nested) Python list. Data items are converted to the nearest compatible builtin Python type, via the item function. If a.ndim is 0, then since the depth of the nested list is 0, it will not be a list at all, but a simple Python scalar.

Parameters
none
Returns
yobject, or list of object, or list of list of object, or...

The possibly nested list of array elements.

注釈

The array may be recreated via a = nlcpy.array(a.tolist()), although this may sometimes lose precision.

Examples

For a 1D array, a.tolist() is almost the same as list(a):

>>> import nlcpy as vp
>>> a = vp.array([1, 2])
>>> list(a)
[array(1), array(2)]
>>> a.tolist()
[1, 2]

However, for a 2D array, tolist applies recursively

>>> a = vp.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
>>> list(a)
[array([1, 2]), array([3, 4])]
>>> a.tolist()
[[1, 2], [3, 4]]

The base case for this recursion is a 0D array:

>>> a = vp.array(1)
>>> list(a)
Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
TypeError: iteration over a 0-d array
>>> a.tolist()
1
transpose(self, *axes)

Returns a view of the array with axes transposed.

For a 1-D array this has no effect, as a transposed vector is simply the same vector. To convert a 1-D array into a 2D column vector, an additional dimension must be added. a[:, nlcpy.newaxis] achieves this. For a 2-D array, this is a standard matrix transpose. For an n-D array, if axes are given, their order indicates how the axes are permuted (see Examples). If axes are not provided and a.shape = (i[0], i[1], ... i[n-2], i[n-1]), then a.transpose().shape = (i[n-1], i[n-2], ... i[1], i[0]).

Parameters
axesNone, tuple of ints, or n ints
  • None or no argument: reverses the order of the axes.

  • tuple of ints: i in the j-th place in the tuple means a's i-th axis becomes a.transpose()'s j-th axis.

  • n ints: same as an n-tuple of the same ints (this form is intended simply as a "convenience" alternative to the tuple form)

Returns
outndarray

View of a, with axes suitably permuted.

参考

nlcpy.ndarray.reshape

Returns an array containing the same data with a new shape.

Examples

>>> import nlcpy as vp
>>> a = vp.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
>>> a
array([[1, 2],
       [3, 4]])
>>> a.transpose()
array([[1, 3],
       [2, 4]])
>>> a.transpose((1, 0))
array([[1, 3],
       [2, 4]])
>>> a.transpose(1, 0)
array([[1, 3],
       [2, 4]])
var(self, axis=None, dtype=None, out=None, ddof=0, keepdims=nlcpy._NoValue)

Computes the variance along the specified axis.

Returns the variance of the array elements, a measure of the spread of a distribution. The variance is computed for the flattened array by default, otherwise over the specified axis.

Refer to nlcpy.var() for full documentation.

参考

nlcpy.var

Equivalent function.

view(self, dtype=None, type=None) ndarray

Returns a new view of array with the same data.

Parameters
dtypedtype, optional

Data-type descriptor of the returned view, e.g., float32 or int64. The default, None, results in the view having the same data-type as a.

typePython type, optional

Type of the returned view, e.g., ndarray or matrix. Again, omission of the parameter results in type preservation.

注釈

a.view() is used two different ways:

a.view(some_dtype) or a.view(dtype=some_dtype) constructs a view of the array's memory with a different dtype. This can cause a reinterpretation of the bytes of memory.

For a.view(some_dtype), if some_dtype has a different number of bytes per entry than the previous dtype (for example, converting a regular array to a structured array), then the behavior of the view cannot be predicted just from the superficial appearance of a (shown by print(a)). It also depends on exactly how a is stored in memory. Therefore if a is C-ordered versus fortran-ordered, versus defined as a slice or transpose, etc., the view may give different results.

Examples

Viewing array data using a different dtype:

>>> import nlcpy as vp
>>> x = vp.array([(1, 2)], dtype=vp.int32)
>>> y = x.view(dtype=vp.int64)
>>> y
array([[8589934593]])

Making changes to the view changes the underlying array

>>> x = vp.array([(1, 2),(3,4)], dtype=vp.int32)
>>> xv = x.view(dtype=vp.int32).reshape(-1,2)
>>> xv[0,1] = 20
>>> x
array([[ 1, 20],
       [ 3,  4]], dtype=int32)
__eq__(value, /)

Return self==value.

__ne__(value, /)

Return self!=value.

__lt__(value, /)

Return self<value.

__le__(value, /)

Return self<=value.

__gt__(value, /)

Return self>value.

__ge__(value, /)

Return self>=value.

__bool__(/)

self != 0

Attributes

T

Transposed array.

base
dtype
flags

Information about the memory layout of the array.

imag

Imaginary part.

itemsize
nbytes

Total number of bytes for all elements.

ndim

Number of dimensions.

node_id
real

Real part.

shape

Lengths of each axis.

size
strides

Strides of each axis in bytes.

ve_adr
venode

VENode object that ndarray exists on.

veo_hmem